Variables are used to store information to be referenced and manipulated in a computer program. They also provide a way of labeling data with a descriptive name, so our programs can be understood more clearly by the reader and ourselves. It is helpful to think of variables as containers that hold information. Their sole purpose is to label and store data in memory. This data can then be used throughout your program.
Naming variables is known as one of the most difficult tasks in computer programming. When you are naming variables, think hard about the names. Try your best to make sure that the name you assign your variable is accurately descriptive and understandable to another reader. Sometimes that other reader is yourself when you revisit a program that you wrote months or even years earlier.
When you assign a variable, you use the
= symbol. The name of the variable goes on the left and the value you want to store in the variable goes on the right.
irb :001 > first_name = 'Joe' => "Joe"
Here we've assigned the value
'Joe', which is a string, to the variable
first_name. Now if we want to reference that variable, we can.
irb :002 > first_name => "Joe"
As you can see, we've now stored the string
'Joe' in memory for use throughout the program.
Note: Make sure you don't confuse the assignment operator (
=) with the equality operator (
==). The individual
= symbol assigns value while the
== symbol checks if two things are equal.
Let's try a little something. Look at the following irb session.
irb :001 > a = 4 => 4 irb :002 > b = a => 4 irb :003 > a = 7 => 7
What is the value of
b at this point? Take your best guess and then type this session into irb to find out.
You'll notice that the value of
b remains 4, while
a was re-assigned to 7. This shows that variables point to values in memory, and are not deeply linked to each other. If this is confusing, don't worry, we'll have plenty of exercises for you to complete that will make this information clear and obvious. And when in doubt, always try it out in irb.
Up until now, you've only been able to assign data to variables from within the program. However, in the wild, you'll want other people to be able to interact with your programs in interesting ways. In order to do that, we have to allow the user to store information in variables as well. Then, we can decide what we'd like to do with that data.
One way to get information from the user is to call the
gets stands for "get string", and is a lot of fun. When you use it, the program waits for the user to 1) type in information and 2) press the enter key. Let's try it out. Type these examples in irb to get the feel and play around with them for a bit if you'd like to.
irb :001 > name = gets Bob => "Bob\n"
After the code,
name = gets, the computer waited for us to type in some information. We typed "Bob" and then pressed enter and the program returned
\n at the end is the "newline" character and represents the enter key. But we don't want that as part of our string. We'll use
chomp chained to
gets to get rid of that - you can put
.chomp after any string to remove the carriage return characters at the end.
irb :001 > name = gets.chomp Bob => "Bob"
There we go! That's much prettier. Now we can use the
name variable as we so please.
irb :001 > name = gets.chomp Bob => "Bob" irb :002 > name + ' is super great!' => "Bob is super great!"
A variable's scope determines where in a program a variable is available for use. A variable's scope is defined by where the variable is initialized or created. In Ruby, variable scope is defined by a block. A block is a piece of code following a method invocation, usually delimited by either curly braces
do/end. Be aware that not all
do/end pairs imply a block*.
Now that you have an idea of what constitutes a variable's scope, one rule that we want you to remember is this:
Inner scope can access variables initialized in an outer scope, but not vice versa.
Looking at some code will make this clearer. Let's say we have a file called
# scope.rb a = 5 # variable is initialized in the outer scope 3.times do |n| # method invocation with a block a = 3 # is a accessible here, in an inner scope? end puts a
What is the value of
a when it is printed to the screen? Try it out.
The value of
a is 3. This is because
a is available to the inner scope created by
3.times do ... end, which allowed the code to re-assign the value of
a. In fact, it re-assigned it three times to 3. Let's try something else. We'll modify the same piece of code.
# scope.rb a = 5 3.times do |n| # method invocation with a block a = 3 b = 5 # b is initialized in the inner scope end puts a puts b # is b accessible here, in the outer scope?
What result did you get when running that program? You should have gotten an error to the tune of:
scope.rb:11:in `<main>': undefined local variable or method `b' for main:Object (NameError)
This is because the variable
b is not available outside of the method invocation with a block where it is initialized. When we call
puts b it is not available within that outer scope.
* Note: the key distinguishing factor for deciding whether code delimited by
do/end is considered a block (and thereby creates a new scope for variables), is seeing if the
do/end immediately follows a method invocation. For example:
arr = [1, 2, 3] for i in arr do a = 5 # a is initialized here end puts a # is it accessible here?
The answer is yes. The reason is because the
for...do/end code did not create a new inner scope, since
for is part of Ruby language and not a method invocation. When we use
times and other method invocations, followed by
do/end, that's when a new block is created.
Before we move on, you should be aware that there are five types of variables. Constants, global variables, class variables, instance variables, and local variables. While you should not worry too much about these topics in depth yet, here is a brief description of each.
Constants are declared by capitalizing every letter in the variable's name. They are used for storing data that never needs to change. While most programming languages do not allow you to change the value assigned to a constant, Ruby does. It will however throw a warning letting you know that there was a previous definition for that variable. Just because you can, doesn't mean you should change the value. In fact, you should not. Constants cannot be declared in method definitions, and are available throughout your application's scopes.
Example of a constant declaration:
MY_CONSTANT = 'I am available throughout your app.'
Global variables are declared by starting the variable name with the dollar sign (
$). These variables are available throughout your entire app, overriding all scope boundaries. Rubyists tend to stay away from global variables as there can be unexpected complications when using them.
Example of a global variable declaration:
$var = 'I am also available throughout your app.'
Class variables are declared by starting the variable name with two
@ signs. These variables are accessible by instances of your class, as well as the class itself. When you need to declare a variable that is related to a class, but each instance of that class does not need its own value for this variable, you use a class variable. Class variables must be initialized at the class level, outside of any method definitions. They can then be altered using class or instance method definitions.
Example of a class variable declaration:
@@instances = 0
Instance variables are declared by starting the variable name with one
@ sign. These variables are available throughout the current instance of the parent class. Instance variables can cross some scope boundaries, but not all of them. You will learn more about this when you get to OOP topics, and should not use instance variables until you know more about them.
Example of an instance variable declaration:
@var = 'I am available throughout the current instance of this class.'
Local variables are the most common variables you will come across and obey all scope boundaries. These variables are declared by starting the variable name with neither
@, as well as not capitalizing the entire variable name.
Example of a local variable declaration:
var = 'I must be passed around to cross scope boundaries.'
In this chapter, we talked about how to use variables to store information for later use and how to get information from a user. We also showed that not all variables are created equal and that the scope in which a variable is defined changes its availability throughout the program. Now that you know the different types of variables and how to use them, let's put some of that knowledge into practice with some exercises.
Write a program called
name.rb that asks the user to type in their name and then prints out a greeting message with their name included.
# name.rb puts "What is your name?" name = gets.chomp puts "Hello " + name
Write a program called
age.rb that asks a user how old they are and then tells them how old they will be in 10, 20, 30 and 40 years. Below is the output for someone 20 years old.
# output of age.rb for someone 20 yrs old How old are you? In 10 years you will be: 30 In 20 years you will be: 40 In 30 years you will be: 50 In 40 years you will be: 60
puts "How old are you?" age = gets.chomp.to_i puts "In 10 years you will be:" puts age + 10 puts "In 20 years you will be:" puts age + 20 puts "In 30 years you will be:" puts age + 30 puts "In 40 years you will be:" puts age + 40
Add another section onto
name.rb that prints the name of the user 10 times. You must do this without explicitly writing the puts method 10 times in a row. Hint: you can use the
times method to do something repeatedly.
# name.rb continued 10.times do puts name end
name.rb again so that it first asks the user for their first name, saves it into a variable, and then does the same for the last name. Then outputs their full name all at once.
# name.rb continued again puts "What is your first name?" first_name = gets.chomp puts "Thank you. What is your last name?" last_name = gets.chomp puts "Great. So your full name is " + first_name + " " + last_name
Look at the following programs...
x = 0 3.times do x += 1 end puts x
y = 0 3.times do y += 1 x = y end puts x
What does x print to the screen in each case? Do they both give errors? Are the errors different? Why?
The first prints
3 to the screen. The second throws an error
undefined local variable or method because
x is not available as it is created within the scope of the